Best in Energy – 3 November 2022

Africa’s governments demand fair energy transition

U.S. gas production and injections drive prices lower

China’s gas consumption growth stalls in 2022

Australia’s mining companies explore renewables

Saudi Arabia’s more independent foreign policy ($FA)

South Africa’s newest coal generator damaged ($BBG)

Aero-engine makers struggle to meet demand ($FT)

Canada excludes China from lithium sector ($FT)

China’s quarantine system – an inside view ($FT)

U.S. INTEREST RATE TRADERS expect the Federal Reserve to raise its federal funds target for longer to peak at a higher level and sustain them at a higher rate than before, following a warning by the central bank’s chief. Policy-controlled interest rates are expected to continue rising until they peak at 5.00-5.25% in May 2023, up from 3.75-4.00% at present, and still be at 4.00-4.25% at the end of 2024:

U.S. PETROLEUM INVENTORIES including the strategic reserve fell by -3 million barrels in the week to October 28. Stocks have depleted in 90 of the last 122 weeks by a total of -494 million barrels since the start of July 2020:

Best in Energy – 6 October 2022

OPEC+ cuts output allocations by -2 million b/d¹

White House criticises OPEC+ cut as shortsighted

Global trade expansion set to decelerate in 2023

Germany plans tax forbearance in energy crisis

Germany warns gas consumption still too high

China’s crude processing slipped in April-June

United States to ease Venezuela sanctions ($WSJ)

U.S. interest rates and financial crises ($WSJ)

¹ Like any cartel, OPEC+ uses a set of production baselines so total group supply can be adjusted in response to changes in market demand while ensuring each member retains a fair pro rata share. Like other cartels, the baselines used by OPEC+ do not necessarily correspond to shares in actual production or capacity in the real world. Cartels often find it very difficult to reach unanimous agreement to change baselines and shares. So in most cases they end up using baselines that have some historical basis but have become out of date.

Between the 1600s and 1800s, England’s Newcastle coal cartel (known as “the limitation of the vend”) allocated larger shares to some mines than they could actually supply. Some of the older, smaller or higher-cost mines had not been able to grow output fast enough to maintain their traditional market shares. But it was easier to keep the baselines and adjust allocations up and down in line with changing market demand than to renegotiate them. OPEC+ has often faced the same problem.

For both the Newcastle coal cartel and OPEC+, total allocations were often above total supply, ensuring changes in notional allocations were normally greater than changes in actual production.

OPEC+ frames its decisions in terms of adjustments to total and individual allocations, not production. The actual change in production is often different. In this case, many OPEC+ countries have been unable to utilise their allocations fully because they have insufficient capacity. These members will not be required to reduce their actual production since it was already well under quota. The actual fall in production is therefore likely to be much smaller than the reduction in the notional allocations.

The difference between production and notional allocations has been a persistent problem in the oil market. OPEC+ decisions are usually reported as “changes in production” when they should be reported as “changes in allocations”. It may seem a harmless simplification but it is deeply misleading.

Sometimes, however, the misdirection is intentional. It allows OPEC+ to announce a large headline increase or decrease, and use it to generate a desired market or diplomatic reaction, even though the actual change in production is much smaller.

But it is more technically accurate and analytically useful to report OPEC+ decisions in terms of production allocations and then report changes in actual production separately.

U.S. PETROLEUM INVENTORIES fell by -16 million bbl in the week to September 30. There were reductions in crude (-8 million), gasoline (-5 million), distillate fuel oil (-3 million) and jet fuel (-1 million). Total inventories have depleted by -480 million bbl since the start of July 2020 and are now at the lowest seasonal level since 2004:

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Best in Energy – 26 September 2022

U.S. Treasury promotes plan for Russia oil price cap

Germany business confidence at post-pandemic low

Germany struggles to agree deals for LNG ($BBG)

Transport shares stumble on recession risk ($WSJ)

China metal trader to restructure ($BBG)

Oil futures markets are not broken ($BBG)

U.S. INTEREST RATE traders expected the central bank to increase its target for the fed funds rate to 4.50-4.75% or even 4.75-5.00% by April 2023, up from 3.00-3.25% at present, as policymakers battle to reduce inflation quickly before it becomes entrenched in wage and price-setting behaviour. Rising expected rates are pushing up the dollar’s exchange value, suppressing inflation at home, but intensifying inflation and financial pressure in other advanced economies in Europe and Asia as well as emerging markets:

U.S. DOLLAR has appreciated by almost +9% over the last twelve months against a trade-weighted basket of other major currencies, as the central bank increases interest rates rapidly. The stronger exchange rate will help reduce domestic inflation but will also worsen the trade deficit:

BRITAIN’S CURRENCY has fallen to a record low against the U.S. dollar and is not far above its record lows against the euro, which will increase competitiveness but put upward pressure on the price of road fuel, gas, electricity and other imported items:

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Best in Energy – 22 September 2022

U.S/EU rivalry for high-energy industry ($WSJ)

South Korea reverts to coal generation ($BBG)

California relied on gas generation in heatwave

UAE oil firm explores Gunvor purchase ($BBG)

U.S./China banking and national security ($FT)

U.S. INTEREST RATE traders expect an imminent business cycle downturn is virtually certain and will be relatively severe. The U.S. Treasury yield curve between two-year and ten-year securities is more inverted than at any time since September 1981, when the economy was entering the second instalment of what proved to be double-dip recession. Like the early 1980s, the central bank finds itself forced to continue tightening monetary policy even as the economy weakens to bring inflation back under control:

LA NIÑA conditions are entering their third year, with sea surface temperatures in the central-eastern Pacific almost -1.0°C below the seasonal average last month:

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Best in Energy – 15 July 2022

White House downplays hopes for more oil

Middle East imports more Russian fuel oil

Japan plans reactor restarts before the winter

United Kingdom heads for winter crisis ($BBG)

Germany is moving into a recession ($BBG)

ERCOT confident will avoid blackout ($BBG)

U.S. household finances and inflation ($WSJ)

Russia/NATO conflict is test of resolve ($BBG)

Central banks turn hawkish on inflation

U.S. CENTRAL BANK is expected to raise short-term interest rates to 3.50-3.75% by February 2023 up from 1.50-1.75% at present to curb inflation. From the second quarter of 2023, however, policymakers are expected to start reducing interest rates as the economy slows and inflation decelerates:

U.S INTEREST RATE traders anticipate a recession has become virtually certain following the continued acceleration of inflation. The yield curve spread between 2-year and 10-year maturities is now in the 98th percentile for all months since 1990:

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